Bach, No. Luigi Swich, in his article "Further thoughts on Bach's 1722 temperament", This page was last edited on 16 November 2020, at 17:46. [40][41][42][43][44][45], Hans von Bülow called The Well-Tempered Clavier the "Old Testament" of music (the Beethoven Sonatas were the "New Testament"). Prelude and Fugue in F-sharp minor, BWV 883 [commons]. Prelude and Fugue in B major, BWV 868 [commons]. Modern editions usually refer to both parts as The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book I (WTC I) and The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book II (WTC II), respectively. [citation needed], Mozart transcribed some of the fugues of the Well-Tempered Clavier for string ensemble:[36][37], Fantasy No. [49], Alexander Siloti transcribed a piano arrangement of the early version of Prelude and Fugue in E minor (BWV 855a), transposed into a Prelude in B minor. In the 20th century Dmitri Shostakovich wrote his 24 Preludes and Fugues, an even closer reference to Bach's model. 15: Praeludium 2. [38][39] Beethoven played the entire Well-Tempered Clavier by the time he was eleven, and produced an arrangement of BWV 867, for string quintet. [34], Both books of the Well-Tempered Clavier were widely circulated in manuscript, but printed copies were not made until 1801, by three publishers almost simultaneously in Bonn, Leipzig and Zurich. Johann Georg Neidhardt, writing in 1724 and 1732, described a range of unequal and near-equal temperaments (as well as equal temperament itself), which can be successfully used to perform some of Bach's music, and were later praised by some of Bach's pupils and associates. 6: Prelude and Fugue in D minor, BWV 851, No. The first set was compiled in 1722 during Bach's appointment in Köthen; the second followed 20 years later in 1742 while he was in Leipzig. Prelude and Fugue in F minor, BWV 881. Prelude in E-flat minor and Fugue in D-sharp minor, BWV 853 [commons]. Fischer's Ariadne musica neo-organoedum (published in 1702 and reissued 1715) is a set of 20 prelude-fugue pairs in ten major and nine minor keys and the Phrygian mode, plus five chorale-based ricercars. Prelude and Fugue in F-sharp major, BWV 882 [commons]. Musically, the structural regularities of the Well-Tempered Clavier encompass an extraordinarily wide range of styles, more so than most pieces in the literature. 2: Prelude and Fugue in C minor, BWV 871, No. The first pair is in C major, the second in C minor, the third in C♯ major, the fourth in C♯ minor, and so on. Bach would have been familiar with different tuning systems, and in particular as an organist would have played instruments tuned to a meantone system. Forkel reports that Bach tuned his own harpsichords and clavichords and found other people's tunings unsatisfactory; his own allowed him to play in all keys and to modulate into distant keys almost without the listeners noticing it. [citation needed] The preludes are formally free, although many of them exhibit typical Baroque melodic forms, often coupled to an extended free coda (e.g. The C♯ major prelude and fugue in book one was originally in C major – Bach added a key signature of seven sharps and adjusted some accidentals to convert it to the required key. Several attempts have been made to analyse the motivic connections between each prelude and fugue,[31] – most notably Wilhelm Werker[32] and Johann Nepomuk David[33] The most direct motivic reference appears in the B major set from Book 1, in which the fugue subject uses the first four notes of the prelude, in the same metric position but at half speed. 11: Prelude and Fugue in F major, BWV 856, No. [1] The collection is generally regarded as being among the most important works in the history of classical music.[2]. [50] The second was made by Wanda Landowska on harpsichord for RCA Victor in 1949 (Book 1) and 1952 (Book 2). [11] Other contemporary works include the treatise Exemplarische Organisten-Probe (1719) by Johann Mattheson (1681–1764), which included 48 figured bass exercises in all keys,[12] Partien auf das Clavier (1718) by Christoph Graupner (1683–1760) with eight suites in successive keys,[13] and Friedrich Suppig's Fantasia from Labyrinthus Musicus (1722), a long and formulaic sectional composition ranging through all 24 keys which was intended for an enharmonic keyboard with 31 notes per octave and pure major thirds. Then all keys, each major key followed by its parallel minor key, are followed through, each time moving up a half tone: C → C♯ → D → E♭ → E → F → F♯ → ... ending with ... → B♭ → B.

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